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    “拍馬”溯源

    發表時間:2011年08月18 作者:宋宏建點擊:5792次 收藏此文

                      

        據顧頡剛先生的《史林雜識》所考,“拍馬”一詞原無阿語奉承之意。只是說古時我國西北馬多,中產之家皆以蓄馬(尤其是駿馬)為榮,其中蒙古人最是愛馬如命,并有“人不出名馬有名”之諺。因膘肥體壯之馬必兩股隆起,故牽馬人相遇,都愛互拍馬屁股曰:“好馬!好馬!”以表欣賞、贊嘆之意。后到階級社會,一些諂媚之徒為討人(尤其是上司)賞識,不管馬優劣只管拍屁股夸曰:“大人的馬好!”于是乎流傳日久,“拍馬”一詞便演繹成了趨炎附勢、諂媚邀寵的代名詞。
        有副對聯寫得好:“吹牛皮前先跟老婆商議商議,拍馬屁后再把上司揣摩揣摩”,佐聯為“百戰不殆”。這就是說,“拍馬”不用投資,決無虧本之憂,只需要吃透被拍者的脾氣、性格和愛好,投其所好,便可飛黃騰達,青云直上。打開中華史冊和文學典籍,精通“拍馬”術者,信手即可拈來。
        《史記》曾載,漢武帝時北海太守治地有方,政通人和百業興旺,帝傳旨問政,太守行前挖空心思總結出“知人善任”、“賞罰分明”等經驗多條,不料文書先生擺手止道:“使不得,使不得,你只須說北海的一切成就都歸功于皇上的英明就行了。”太守依計而行,果然龍顏大悅,對其加官進爵,弄得秉筆正史的太史公也忍不住扼腕嘆息:“動聽的話語簡直比昂貴的商品還厲害呀!”
        若說“拍馬”之峰巔作品,當屬明代趙南星《笑贊》里的一則妙文。一秀才死后到閻羅殿報到,恰遇閻王放一響屁,于是靈感大發,迅疾作出一篇《屁頌》:“高竦金臀,弘宣寶氣,依稀乎絲竹之音,仿佛乎麝蘭之味,臣立下風,不勝馨香之至。”此番“屁話”出口成誦,愜意得閻王身輕骨酥,飄飄然貴手一抬,即為秀才增壽十載,當場放回人間。想那秀才幾句假話,卻換來實實在在十年陽壽,可見“拍馬”之利大大的有哇!
        “上司放屁,下屬唱戲”這個典故,是說明朝萬歷皇帝7歲登基,朝政全權委托老師文淵閣大學士沈鯉處理。某日沈代皇帝巡視江南,回京路過老家歸德府(今河南商丘),因怕驚動地方官員,青衣小帽悄悄回鄉。但世上沒有不透風的墻,消息還是不脛而走,歸德知府立馬厚禮求見。沈上司礙于面子,婉言謝絕了禮物,然接見時忽覺肚內發張,濁氣下降,考慮自家官居極品,大庭廣眾面前怕失尊嚴,只好強忍著把屁徐徐放出。可擅長溜須拍馬的知府,見上司面露急色如坐針氈,忙問有何為難之事?沈閣老連連擺手:“不妨不妨,老夫不過通通氣而已。”因沈年逾古稀,齒缺跑風,下屬把“通通氣”聽做“聽聽戲”,慌作揖道:“大人放心,卑職敢不從命,一定照辦!”上司暗笑著送走客人,知府這邊卻熱鬧起來——衙門里搭臺,傾城戲班匯演,一時間鑼鼓喧天,絲竹沸反。經過三天競技,知府親自海選出好戲粉墨登場,哪知去請上司已人去樓空,只留下一首打油詩曰:“上司放個屁,下屬唱臺戲;奉勸貴知府,拍馬須仔細。”
        無獨有偶,據說清朝乾隆下江南時,在淮陰湖心寺路邊撒尿一泡,當地的馬屁精縣官立即于撒尿處豎起一座石碑,上書“皇恩浩蕩”四字,果然不久便從知縣升任知府。再說那個中國歷史上最大的貪污犯和珅,被抄家產折銀8億兩,等于朝廷10年收入。其家財萬貫,不也是靠會拍乾隆的“馬屁”,而由清廷鑾儀衛當差而扶搖直上為一人之下、萬人之上的文華殿大學士嗎?
        《紅樓夢》中有個“好風憑借力,送我上青云”的名句,正是精通拍馬術者薛寶釵的心秘揭示。大觀園里她在生日宴上,賈母問她愛吃什么,她答“老祖宗喜歡吃的,我都愛吃。”就連賈府中最善于討好賣乖、逢迎獻媚的王熙鳳,也不得不佩服其“拍術”之高。至于說曹雪芹對賈府內丫環仆人拍主子馬屁、小主子拍大主子馬屁、大主子拍朝廷馬屁,及各類主子之間互拍馬屁的刻畫,入木三分者俯拾皆是,堪稱為當時、甚至現代社會生活中淋漓盡致的真實寫照。到了21世紀的今天,仍未絕跡。  
        縱觀“拍馬”歪風之所以能沿古襲今,蓋源于封建社會里蠅營狗茍、盤根錯節的關系網絡,和那些“一人得道,雞犬升天”、“順我者昌,逆我者亡”的流毒遺傳。然而古今以來,出 污泥而不染的“五官端正”(嘴不饞、耳不偏、心不散、手不長、腿不懶)者也大有人在,“一線太守”劉寵、“二不公”侍郎范景文、“三湯道召”湯斌、“四知先生”楊震、“五代清郎”袁聿修等等清官的故事,千百年來膾炙人口,永垂不朽。故曰:美德即使穿著襤褸,也會令人高山仰止,景行行之。

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