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    說古琴,談箜篌

    發表時間:2016年10月09 作者:齊鳳池點擊:993次 收藏此文

     
      一、說古琴


      那年中國農歷除夕夜,中國古琴大師龔一,攜一架宋代詞人李清照用過的古琴,走進維也納金色大廳,他撫琴一曲《流水》,將俞伯牙和鐘子期知音相遇的故事,講了西方藝術之都的維也納人聽。
      曲中,“涓涓細流,遠浪漸來,驚濤拍岸,卷起千堆雪……”,樂曲把多種流水動態,表現得淋漓盡致。之后,大師又演奏了《平沙落雁》、《漁歌》等等。
      這些代表著中華文明古曲,在維也納金色大廳里縈繞著,給那些大鼻子、藍眼睛、黃頭髮的歐洲聽呆了。
      以前聽音樂界人說過,西方人說中國沒有音樂。就一部小提琴協奏曲《梁祝》,專利還賣給了外國人。其實,西方人根本不了解中國。就一曲《流水》就夠他們聽一輩子的。
      龔一大師撫琴一曲《流水》,一下就把西方人驚呆了,也給世界折服了。
      中國樂器種類很多,最早的弦樂有兩種,一種叫琴,一種叫瑟。用古琴演奏的曲子,縈繞華夏九百六萬土地和空間,余音裊裊不絕如縷,像《流水》、《梅花三弄》、《平沙落雁》、《龍翔操》、《仙翁操》等曲子都是華夏音樂之瑰寶。
      明代屠隆在論琴時說:“琴為書室中雅樂,不可一日不對清音。居士談古,若無古琴,新者亦須壁懸一床,無論能操。縱不善操,亦當有琴。”就是說,會彈琴者和不會彈琴者室內必須有張琴。
      文化人常說,琴、棋、書、畫,是一個文人必備的修養和素質。而現代的詩人作家畫家有幾個真正懂音樂的。大多數是一條腿走路。
      晉代的陶淵明也說:“但得琴中趣,何勞弦上音。吾輩業琴,不在記博,惟知琴趣,貴得其真。若亞圣操懷古吟,志懷賢也;古交行,雪窗夜話,思尚友也。猗蘭、陽春,鼓之宣暢布和......”由此可見,歷代文人騷客是何等的愛琴。
      讀了這些書,使我明白了古人對于琴的重視,明白了“操弄一二,養性修身之道”的道理。文人的“琴者,禁也。禁止于邪,以正人心,感發善念。”是做人之本。古代文人騷客君子都是撫琴高手。歷史記載孔子、蔡邕、蔡文姬、李白、杜甫、宋徽宗、李清照、嵇康等都是著名的琴家。我記得《詩經》中就有這樣的名句“窈窕淑女,琴瑟友之”,“我有嘉賓,鼓瑟鼓琴”等好的詩句。
      古琴在中國有三千多年的歷史,它是中國古代地位最崇高的樂器,有哲人曾說:古琴為哲學性的藝術或藝術性的哲學。
      古琴還被列為"琴棋書畫"四藝之首。古琴是古代文人的必修之器,歷史上的著名琴家數不勝數,古琴也是文人墨客騷人君子辦學的重要六藝之一。
      古琴,身長三尺六寸五分,代表一年有三百六十五天;琴面是弧形,代表天;琴底為平,象征地。
      古琴有十三個徽,代表一年有十二個月及閏月。
      古琴最初有五根弦,象征金、木、水、火、土。
      周文王為悼念死去的兒子伯邑考,增加了一根弦,武王伐紂時,為了增加士氣,又增添了一根弦,所以古琴又稱"文武七弦琴"。因此,給古琴又增加了文化內涵和傳奇色彩。
      二胡、小提琴的演奏技巧泛音,技法很難掌握,操作發出的聲音非常好聽。使用這種技法演奏音色效果非常好聽。但古琴有一百多個泛音,它是世界上擁有泛音最多的樂器。
      古琴大師龔一,有一架李清照當年親手撫操過的古琴,它的文化和歷史價值,已經遠遠超過了古琴本身。
      走進古琴大師龔一的書齋,完全進入了琴的“世界”。雅室不大,滿屋多琴,所以大師取名“五琴堂”。
      龔一大師的“五琴堂”,絕不是附庸風雅,而是齋中藏有宋、元、明、清五架珍寶。其中最昂貴的一架還是李清照親手撫操過的古琴。
      龔一大師說:“古聲澹無味,不稱今人情。”電影《知音》中的小鳳仙和蔡鄂的故事也是在覓知音!為“知音”他們走在了一起。
      電影中的主題音樂,至今還在我心頭縈繞著。而音樂的清泉,卻依然涓涓流淌在歲月的長河上,古琴幽幽穿透亙古歲月!


      二、談箜篌


      聽過小提琴協奏曲《梁祝》的人都知道,那象泉水一樣流淌出的悠悠琴聲,是在悠揚的長笛的引子引領下才流淌出來的。裊裊的長笛在寧靜而空曠,潔凈而深邃的童話世界里飄蕩,悠悠箜篌就在下面涓涓流淌。
      那象山間溪水一樣流淌出來的聲音,是一位懷抱箜篌的女子彈撥出來的。那一串串金質的撞在山石上也不碎的音符,象開春的小溪流,發出有靈性的神韻。就象彈撥我的神經,又象在我心靈上流淌過一樣,舒服極了,美妙極了!
      大師的手指和心靈,在銀質的長笛吹來的春風中已經漸漸蘇醒.在四條金屬的小路上.翩躚著兩只蝴蝶輕盈的靈魂。箜篌流淌著涓涓溪水,嘩嘩地響聲比音符更純粹。兩只蝴蝶在長笛上迅速神化美麗的身影。蝴蝶倒影在箜篌的溪水里,梳洗得干干凈凈,兩只蝴蝶一前一后地追逐,雀躍,嬉戲,迅速飛入花叢,去尋找前世的姻緣和愛情。
      演奏《梁祝》的樂器有小提琴、中提琴、大提琴、貝司、小號,長號、圓號、單簧管、雙簧管和大管以及打擊樂。從這些樂器中拿出一件獨奏都特別好聽。但這些樂器合起來演奏就不如箜篌的音質亮麗、圓潤共鳴強烈了。我喜歡箜篌的聲音,尤其是看到舞臺上一位漂亮的女人,用纖細的手指,在豎著的弦上奔跑發出動人的聲響時,更讓我著迷。
      聽到箜篌的聲音,我的眼前好象出現了一條彎彎的小河,河水清澈明亮,發出丁冬丁冬的聲音。由于對箜篌的迷戀,每次有大型的交響樂團演奏《梁祝》,我都想到臺上親手撫摸一下箜篌,看看我的手指彈奏箜篌發出的聲音是什么樣的。
      有一次我真的試了一回,結果我彈奏箜篌的那聲音和大師彈奏發出的聲音是一樣的,真讓我興奮不已。后來,我查了很多有關箜篌資料,因此,我對箜篌不僅有了很深的認識,而且對箜篌的歷史也有了很多的了解。
      箜篌,是我國古代北方少數民族彈撥樂器。有豎頭箜篌、胡箜篌。箜篌形狀多樣,既有外形和西洋樂器豎琴相像的角形箜篌,也有琴頭加飾的鳳首箜篌和龍首箜篌。
      箜篌的音域寬廣、音色柔美清澈,表現力強。隋唐時期曾用于西涼、龜茲、疏勒、高昌諸樂以及高麗樂中,并東傳日本。明代以后就很少使用了。1984年我國研制成功了轉調箜篌。終于,使千年古樂變成了中國樂器中的又一朵神奇的奇葩。并成為中華民族管弦樂隊中的一名重要成員。
      箜篌最早叫坎侯或空侯,有臥、豎兩種類型。春秋戰國時,楚國就已經有與琴、瑟相像的臥箜篌了。漢代劉向《世本•作篇》有:“空侯,空國侯所造,靡靡之音也。出于濮上,取空國之侯名也”的記載。濮上,即濮水之上,在古衛國境內,即今河南濮陽一帶。說明臥箜篌已有三千多年的歷史了。東漢應劭《風俗通義》云:“空侯,謹按《漢書•郊祀志》:‘孝武皇帝塞南越,禱祠太一、后土,始用樂人侯調,依琴作坎坎之樂,言其坎坎應節奏也,侯以姓冠章耳。或說空侯取其空中。琴瑟皆空,何獨坎侯耶?’”《史記•封禪書》中則有:“(武帝)塞南越、禱祠太一、后土,始用樂舞,益召歌兒,作二十五弦,及空侯,琴瑟自此始。”司馬遷的這段記述,說明古代臥箜篌是有柱的彈弦樂器。漢代,臥箜篌被作為“華夏正聲”的代表樂器列入“清商樂”中,當時有五弦十余柱,以竹為槽,用木撥彈奏。東漢之后,又由波斯經西域傳入我國中原一種角形箜篌。為避免混同,從六朝末期就分別造名,以臥、豎而示區別。臥箜篌曾用于隋唐的高麗樂中。唐代杜佑《通典》載有:“箜篌,舊制一依琴制,今按其形似瑟而小,七弦,用撥彈之,如琵琶也。”后來,在我國日漸銷跡,以致器失聲絕。被表現力豐富的琴、箏所代替。然而,臥箜篌在朝鮮、韓國卻得以傳承。在日本稱其為百濟琴。(百濟為朝鮮古稱)。今天從甘肅嘉峪關魏晉墓磚畫、遼寧輯安北魏古墓藻井壁畫和輯安高句麗古墓壁畫中看到其樂器圖像,并可以一睹臥箜篌的演奏風采。
      早在東漢之時,豎箜篌就隨著“絲綢之路”上的商賈往來,由伊朗經西域傳入我國中原一帶。《隋書•音樂志》中載:“今曲項琵琶、豎頭箜篌之徒,并出自西域,非華夏之舊器。”關于其形制,唐代杜佑《通典》有云:“豎箜篌,胡樂也,漢靈帝(劉宏)好之。體曲而長,二十有二弦,豎抱于懷中,用兩手齊奏,俗謂之臂箜篌。”宋人范曄《后漢書•五行志》中曾載有:“靈帝好胡服……胡箜篌、胡笛、胡舞,京都貴戚皆競為之。” 這種有20多條琴弦的箜篌,在我國樂壇上盛行于東晉以后到唐宋兩代。宋代吳自牧《夢梁錄》(卷三)曾這樣描寫道:“高三尺許,形如半邊木梳,黑漆鏤花金裝畫臺座,張二十五弦,一人跪而交手臂之。”這是大型的豎箜篌,另外還有一種比較小的豎箜篌,是左手托著箜篌,右手彈奏,多用于儀仗音樂中。今天,古代豎箜篌的實物雖已無存,但在我國北魏至唐宋的大同云崗石窟奏樂浮雕、敦煌的“隋代樂隊”壁畫和成都五代前蜀皇帝王建墓的浮雕中都能見到彈奏豎箜篌的圖像,它們完全與亞述浮雕上所見的豎琴維妙維肖,波斯則是亞述式豎琴的本源地。
      在古代皇室樂中,箜篌是不可缺少的,而且在演奏中還是主要的樂器之一。由于它有弦數組,不僅能演奏旋律,也能奏出和弦,在獨奏或伴奏方面都較其它樂器更為優越。小提琴協奏曲《梁祝》中的引子和結尾就是由它發出的象流水一樣清澈的聲音,一直在樂曲中飄渺蕩漾的。
      在古代詩歌中,箜篌也屢見不鮮。漢代有一位小家碧玉,焦仲卿之妻劉蘭芝,聰明絕頂,被人吟詩道:
      “孔雀東南飛,五里一徘徊,十三能織素,十四學裁衣,十五彈箜篌,十六誦詩書。”
      說明箜篌已是當時女子十分喜愛的常習樂器。唐代著名詩人李賀在《李憑箜篌引》中寫道:
      “吳絲蜀桐張高秋,空山凝云頹不流。江娥啼竹素女愁,李憑中國彈箜篌。昆山玉碎鳳凰叫,芙蓉泣露香蘭笑。十二門前融冷光,二十三絲動紫皇。女媧煉石補天處,石破天驚逗秋雨。夢入神山教神嫗,老魚跳波瘦蛟舞。吳質不眠倚桂樹,露腳斜飛濕寒兔。”
      這既是李賀的代表作,也是唐詩中描寫音樂題材的名篇之一。它以一場秋雨為線索,明寫天氣變化,暗述演奏過程,并借神話人物來寫聽眾,富有強烈的浪漫主義色彩。
      詩人用奇特的幻想、極度的夸張,描寫了穿云裂石的音樂力量,使千百年前宮廷器樂演奏家李憑彈奏的箜篌之音,至今仍能震撼讀者的心靈。
      宋代詞人韓淲《聞箜篌》:“飄渺神仙云霧窗。說與蘇州,未斷人腸。帶湖煙月墜蒼茫。喚醒嫦娥,春筍纖長。馬上琵琶半額妝。撥盡相思,十二巫陽。疏□清夢入瀟湘。佩玉鳴鸞,吹下天香。”描寫了文人的情思與箜篌的妙響,令人神往。
      我想,小提琴協奏曲《梁祝》如果沒有箜篌和長笛的引子,音樂的意境肯定要遜色的。結尾要是沒有箜篌發出的水聲潺潺和鳥語花香,蝴蝶翩躚,音樂的收尾就會顯得生硬,音樂的畫面語言就不會有那么美的定格永恒。
      是箜篌給聽眾的想象空間增添了許多美麗而神奇畫面,一架箜篌給音樂豐滿了翱翔翅膀,不僅在古老的中華大地上飛翔,它早已飛越了維也納的神奇美妙的音樂天堂!


      2016—9—27
      

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