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    端午滿園香 楊廣虎

    發表時間:2019年05月30 作者:楊廣虎點擊:308次 收藏此文

    端午滿園香

                        楊廣虎

        在西府寶雞,農歷五月五“端午節”前后,基本是麥黃收割的日子。“端午日,兩水來,年大熟。”因天氣、地理位置、光照等原因,在八百里秦川、關中大地,從潼關到大散關,麥子從東到西開始收割。既不能誤了收割麥子,端午節還要過。

    端午節與春節、清明節、中秋節并稱為中國漢族的四大傳統節日。 端午從字面上還有“端五”、“重五”、“重午”等名稱。“端”古漢語有開頭、初始的意思,稱“端五”也就如稱“初五”。《風土記》里說:“仲夏端午。端者,初也。”每月有三個五日,頭一個五日就是“端五”。因仲夏登高,順陽在上,五月是仲夏,它的第一個午日正是登高順陽好天氣之日,故五月初五亦稱為“端陽節”。此外端午節還稱“午日節、五月節、龍舟節、浴蘭節”等。端午節起源于中國,最初為古代崇拜龍圖騰的部族舉行圖騰祭祀的節日,百越之地春秋之前有在農歷五月初五以龍舟競渡形式舉行部落圖騰祭祀的習俗,后來為了紀念詩人屈原跳汨羅江自盡。古人把五月初五視為“惡月”“惡日”,不乏典籍記載:除《禮記》外,漢?應劭《風俗通義》:“五月五生的子女,不祥之兆,男克父,女害母。”故有去惡辟邪的習俗,插艾、配艾、蒲酒以避蟲。“五月到官,至免不遷”、“五月蓋房,令人頭禿”。人們一直認為五月五是深惡痛絕的“惡日”。雖是“惡月惡日”,但人們通過帶有神秘色彩的各種豐富活動形式進行改善、變為:“善月善日”,寄托著人們追求美好的生活希冀。

    我記得家里過“端午節”是很隆重的。從記事起,年年過;但自從上了中學,待在學校,就沒法過了,只有晚上回家,湊合吃幾個粽子了事。

    生在農家,雖家鄉所處之地賈村塬有崇尚“詩書傳家久,耕讀繼世長”的傳統和氛圍,但家人從不勉強娃們學習,主要靠自覺。小時候,每天早上太陽照到屁股、一覺睡到自然醒才從炕上爬起,端午節也不例外。等我起來的時候,大約九十點,父母已經從地里割麥回來,他們為了趁涼趕時間收麥,一般五六點天擦亮就去地里,鐮刀都是前一天晚上磨好的。西府農村,一般一天吃兩頓飯,早上九十點一頓,下午兩三點一頓,晚上基本不再吃飯,這個習慣一直延續至今。

    父母回家,打掃完庭院,把我們這些孩子和老人叫到院子里的八仙桌上吃飯。一般吃食是,玉米糝子鍋盔饃,油潑酸辣灰灰菜,外加自己做的紅豆蜜棗粽子,還有買的綠豆糕。包谷稀飯,母親在下地前就用慢火熬上,非常耐喝。在吃飯前,要插艾葉、抹雄黃酒、戴裹肚、佩香包、纏五色線。宋代大詩人蘇軾有詩云:“輕汗微微透碧紈,明朝端午浴芳蘭。流香漲膩滿晴川。”整個農家小院,滿園飄香,有泥土地清香,麥子的熟香,艾葉的芳香,雄黃酒的濃香,裹肚香包的藥香,還有花草樹木的香味,香氣撲鼻,沁人心脾。

    村民將家艾、艾蒿,叫做“艾”。“端午百草都是藥”之說,端午節當天,“清明插柳,端午插艾”,在家里的門窗上,甚至樹上、燒炕的煙筒上都要插上幾把從田野里剛剛拔來的艾葉。古人說,插艾有驅蟲防病功能;現代科學也證明,它的莖、葉都含有揮發性芳香油,它所產生的奇特芳香,可驅蚊蠅、蟲蟻,凈化空氣。農村人沒有“蚊香”,但很聰明,用土辦法,夏季晚上七八點用“艾”驅蚊,關閉門窗,點燃曬干的艾草,香味飄起,煙味熏得蚊蠅跑走,然后舒舒服服美美地睡一覺。后人將艾葉加工成“艾絨”,是灸法治病的重要藥材。中醫學上以艾入藥,有理氣血、暖子宮、祛寒濕的功能。我肚子不舒服的時候,躺在炕上,爺婆就給我揉揉,然后用艾炙;把肚皮擦干凈,把大蒜或者生姜切成片貼在肚皮上,用大艾炷灸,很快就好。后來知道這叫“隔蒜灸”或“隔姜灸”,中華醫學博大精深,民間的許多偏方自然經過多次驗證,有它的妙處。還有人在端午節用紅繩串幾個古錢幣扎束一把艾掛在門上的,寓意避邪鎮宅。

    插完艾葉,父親要在地上灑雄黃水,在我們耳孔外邊、手足心處抹雄黃酒,再象征性地讓我們抿一下雄黃酒。端午時節及節后,氣候炎熱,蠅蟲飛動,毒氣上升,疫病萌發。古人認為人是吃五谷雜糧生百病的,而病從口入,多為邪雜之氣,經口鼻吸入,雄黃酒抹鼻額,以防蚊蟲叮咬。人們在長期同各種病魔斗爭過程中,發現飲雄黃酒、佩戴香包能驅邪解毒、激濁除腐、殺菌防病。小時候,還戴過母親親身做的“五毒裹肚” 呢。手工繡制的五毒裹肚可是非常重要的節日禮物,被稱為“兒童的保護神。”黃色緞子底的裹肚上繡一般是指蛇、蝎子、蜈蚣、壁虎、蟾蜍,因此人們用針刺繡五毒,希望以此殺死這些毒蟲,保佑平安,讓孩子們能夠健康成長。

    香包也是早準備的。母親早早為每個孩子繡好,有老虎、公雞、猴子等各種生肖。形態逼真,栩栩如生。香包又叫容臭、香袋、香囊、香纓、馨包、佩幃,也稱荷包、耍貨子、絀絀。它是西府以及其他地方廣大婦女創造的一種民間刺繡工藝品。香包最早稱容臭,屈原《離騷》中有“扈江籬與辟芷兮,紉秋蘭以為佩”,當時的香料是辟芷、秋蘭。在明朝仍有容臭的稱呼。家鄉的香囊用綢布制成,內裝雄黃、熏草、艾葉等香料。縫制成形狀各異、大小不等的小繡囊,內裝用多種濃烈芳香氣味的中草藥研制的細末,主要作為節日的一種紀念。現在多做一種藝術觀賞品。香包用青、赤、黃、白、黑五色絲線刺繡而成,色彩絢麗,自然有裝飾衣著、把玩欣賞之審美功用,又因填有特殊的中藥材,兼有驅邪擗欹、除菌爽神功效。《禮記、類則》載,未成年男女,晨昏叩拜父母,必須佩戴香包,說明香包還有禮儀作用。西府端午節的香包,我覺得主要功能是驅蚊避邪保平安吉祥,也是一種節日儀式的需要。老年人為了防病健身,一般喜歡戴梅花、菊花、桃子、蘋果、荷花、娃娃騎魚、娃娃抱公雞、雙蓮并蒂等形狀的,象征著鳥語花香,萬事如意,夫妻恩愛,家庭和睦。小孩喜歡的是飛禽走獸類的,如虎、豹子;猴子上竽、斗雞趕免等。青年人戴香包最講究,如果是熱戀中的情人,那多情手巧的姑娘很早就要精心制作鴛鴦戲水等內容別致的香包,趕有節前送給自己的情郎。當然,陜北的“香包”,還表達一種男女相愛的感情。一般是我們娃娃戴香包,大人收割莊稼不太方便,不予佩戴。

        大人們都要一大早給孩子腳腕、手腕綁上花花繩。系線時,禁忌兒童開口說話,到農歷六月初六日才解下來,我們村子地處旱塬缺水,一般丟到井內或河渠邊,意在防止蛇咬。據說,戴五色線的兒童可以避開蛇蝎類毒蟲的傷害;扔到河里,意味著讓河水將瘟疫、疾病沖走,兒童由此可以保安康。端午前幾十天最忙活的是女人,五色線纏粽子,搓花花繩,繡香包,做絀絀。中國古代崇拜五色,以五色為吉祥色。《風俗通》則記載:“五月五,日以五彩絲系臂,名長命縷,一名續命縷,一命辟兵繒,一名五色縷,一名朱索,辟兵及鬼,命人不病瘟”。五彩絲不是五彩繽紛的花色絲線,而是確定了的紅、黃、藍、白、黑五種顏色的絲線合并成的縷索。《宋史?禮志十五》:“前一日,以金縷延壽帶、彩絲續命縷分賜百官。節日戴以入。”

    吃完早飯,我們這些娃娃被大人領到麥地,跟在割麥的父母、麥客后面,冒著烈日,彎下腰去,在田地里拾麥,也感受著“粒粒皆辛苦”的滋味。

    晚上,一直到了伸手不見五指才回家。老人們坐在炕上抽著旱煙,飲著“罐罐茶”。“泥火盆,黑木炭,三角撐,千里駒,一口飲”。西府人喜歡沸水“熬茶”,無論冬夏,凡是有客人到來,先讓上炕,在炕上喝濃茶說農事。有句話講的好:“老漢喝了罐罐茶,干活一天不覺乏”。年輕小伙們,看到豐收的年饉,忙碌一天,還不累,弄幾個涼菜,吃吃喝喝。劃拳猜令,好不熱鬧!大聲叫喊著:“一個螃蟹一張殼,兩個大夾夾,八個小爪爪,夾呀夾得累,扯呀扯不脫。一心敬你,兩家相好,三桃園來,四季發財,五經魁首,六六順來,七個銀巧,八仙慶壽,九命長壽,十滿堂來,親家你喝”。讓夏日寂靜的村莊沸騰起來。

         “粽子香,香廚房。艾葉香,香滿堂。桃枝插在大門上,出門一望麥兒黃。這兒端陽,那兒端陽,處處都端陽。”從原始驅疫儀式,到戰國龍舟競渡、紀念屈原到新時代大家移風易俗,盡管各地風俗有一些差別,但美好的祈福愿望,我想是一致的。傳統意義上的端午節今天變成了與家人團聚,觀賞體驗泥塑、剪紙、刺繡、草編、木版年畫等寶雞民間工藝,一起旅游放松、沐浴香湯、休閑度假的好日子。我覺得,人們過端午節,不僅僅在于一種鄉土、鄉間情感的寄托和懷念,更是一種物質生活基本滿足后,活在當下,追求快樂輕松精神生活的一種選擇,一種生活需要儀式感的渴求。

     

                      2019529日匆于長安

     

     

     


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